Friday, November 18, 2016

Characteristics Cyanophyta / Cyanobacteria / Blue-Green Algae

General Characteristics Cyanophyta


  1. be prokaryotic
  2. Body unicellular or multicellular
  3. Have chlorophyll, is photoautotrophs
  4. Habitat cosmopolitan (found everywhere)
  5. Some live in symbiosis with other living creatures
  6. The breed asexually


Size And Shape Cells Cyanophyta

Cyanophyta has a size of about 1-60 lm. Cyanophyta-the biggest is Oscillatoria princeps. Cyanophyta varying body size relates to shape also varies. Cyanophyta body shape is round and there is no form of yarn (filament). Cyanophyta Cyanophyta round shape is a unicellular living solitary or in colonies.

Cyanophyta thread form also called trichomes. Cyanophyta Cyanophyta multicellular forms a thread. In Cyanophyta form of thread, for example Anabaena, there are three main types of cells, namely heterokista, akinet, and baeosit. Heterokista a thick-walled cells that are useful for binding nitrogen. Akiner is thick-walled cells that function for self-defense. While baeosit are small round cells reproductive outcomes. Baeosit also serves to carry out photosynthesis.

Cyanophyta Cell Structure And Function

Cyanophyta cell structure and function similar to the structure and function of the bacterial cell. The cell wall has a similar arrangement with Gram-negative bacteria, which contain a thin peptidoglycan layer. The outside of the cell wall containing a layer of mucus. The mucus layer on some kind of Cyanophyta can help movement by way of sliding.

Cytoplasm Cyanophyta not have a lot of organelles and does not have a nuclear membrane (prokaryotic). Fotosintetiknya membrane (thylakoid membrane) contain the pigment chlorophyll, carotene, and additional pigments. Additional pigments such as phycocyanin blue and red fikoeritrin.

Pigments that cause the color of Cyanophyta variegated green, red, purple, to black. Cyanophyta so often called blue-green algae. Cyanophyta body also has a gas vacuole that enable floating near the surface of the water, which has high intensity sunlight. Cyanophyta need sunlight for photosynthesis.

habitat Cyanophyta

Cyanophyta can be found in the various environments eg, lakes, seas, rivers, soil, rock, and bogs. Cyanophyta can be seen with the naked eye in the form of a thin layer of green and blue, red, or purple-black. At any given moment, Cyanophyta that live in the water appears abundant, causing water-colored look of the Cyanophyta.

For example, green and blue Cyanophyta (Anabaena) made of rice field water looks greenish and red Cyanophyta (Ascillatoria rubescens) make the sea in the Middle East is red so-called Red Sea. Some types of Cyanophyta which can bind nitrogen acts as pioneer plants in nutrient-poor habitat (food), for example, a sandy beach or desert.

Cyanophyta, Syneckococcus lividus can live in extreme habitats, such as habitat with a high acidity level (pH 4.0) and high temperature (700C). While other types of anyone living in symbiosis with other organisms, such as Nostoc and Anabaena azollae. Nostoc live with fungi forming lichen (Lichen) Peltigera, as well as live in the roots of ferns Cycas. Anabaena azollae live in leaf water fern Azolla pinata.

The symbiosis between Cyanophyta with other organisms mutual benefit. Cyanophyta primarily about providing organic nutrition plays a role in the symbiotic organisms. While the symbiotic organisms provide moisture and inorganic nutrients in Cyanophyta.

Living and Reproductive Cyanophyta

Cyanophyta live photoautotrophs by assimilating simple compounds, for example CO2, nitrate or ammonium ion, and some other inorganic ions. Differences Cyanophyta with bacteria photoautotrophs is Cyanophyta produce O2 in the process of photosynthesis whereas photoautotrophs bacteria do not produce O2.

Cyanophyta Reproduction is asexually by splitting themselves (binary fission), fragmentation part of the filament (hormogonia), and the establishment of aknet (spores). Binary fission carried out by a one-celled Cyanophyta, while the fragmentation at the hormogonia conducted by Cyanophyta shaped yarn. In poor environmental conditions, akinet Cyanobacteria are formed in order to survive. If the environment has improved, akinet can form new filaments. Sexual reproduction is unknown.

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